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Archive Number 20030423.0987
Published Date 23-APR-2003
Subject PRO/AH> Newcastle disease, poultry - USA (TX): OIE

NEWCASTLE DISEASE, POULTRY - USA (TEXAS): OIE
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Date: 22 April 2003
From: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>
Source: Office International des Epizooties(OIE), Disease Information [edited]
<http://www.oie.int/eng/info/hebdo/AIS_23.HTM#Sec0>


Newcastle disease in the State of Texas, USA
--------------------------------------------
Information received on 11 Apr 2003, dated 10 Apr 2003, from Dr Peter 
Fernandez, associate administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Washington, DC:

The report refers to an animal health incident first detected on 26 Sep 
2002 in El Paso County, Texas (western part of the state). The estimated 
date of first infection is 19 Sep 2002. One outbreak of Newcastle disease 
has been confirmed (clinical and laboratory diagnosis) in backyard birds 
(164 birds) in El Paso County, Texas, which is outside the current 
quarantine area.

Quarantined backyard flocks (infected and/or dangerous contacts) by county 
in Texas: El Paso (9); an additional 15 premises within a 1 km radius zone 
around the positive premises are also quarantined and will be depopulated. 
The affected establishment in Texas is situated in El Paso county, about 25 
km east of New Mexico. Due to potential contact with other backyard birds 
traced to adjacent counties in New Mexico, the adjacent counties of Otero, 
Dona Ana, and Luna in New Mexico have also been placed under state and 
federal quarantine while the investigation is under way.

Total number of animals in the outbreak:
species / susceptible / cases / deaths / destroyed / slaughtered
avi / ... / ... / ... / about 456 / 0

The causal agent (paramyxovirus type-1) was identified at the National 
Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, Iowa, using virus isolation. The 
virus was found to have multiple basic amino acids at the fusion (F) 
protein cleavage activation site: arg. arg. glu. lys. arg* phe, a sequence 
compatible with that of mesogenic/velogenic pathotypes.

The sequence of the Texas APMV-1 is compatible with its classification as 
exotic Newcastle disease virus (ENDV). The sequence at the cleavage site of 
the fusion protein gene is RRQKR/F, which is identical with that found in 
the CA, NV, and AZ isolates of ENDV. The nucleotide sequence of the 180-bp 
segment flanking the cleavage site is identical with the CA, NV\, and AZ 
isolates of exotic Newcastle disease virus.

Epidemiology:
A. Source of agent / origin of infection: molecular epidemiology and 
phylogenetic analysis show the southern California isolate to be very 
closely related to the exotic Newcastle disease virus isolated in northern 
Mexico during the outbreak that occurred in that country in 2000.
B. Mode of spread: direct contact, fomites.
C. Other epidemiological details:
- Quarantine and depopulation of the confirmed positive premise (1) and 
dangerous contact premises (8) have been completed. All 456 birds on these 
premises were destroyed.
- The state of Texas has placed quarantine orders on all backyard premises 
within a 1 km radius of the positive premises. All backyard flocks found 
within the 1 km radius will be depopulated.
- The State of Texas has further issued quarantine for the entire counties 
of El Paso and Hudspeth.
- To date, no other raised mortality in backyard birds has been documented, 
and there is no evidence of further clinical infection. Epidemiological 
investigations and intensified surveillance are ongoing to determine 
whether there has been any spread of the disease.

Control measures:
- quarantine of affected backyard premises and dangerous contacts.
- Movement control inside the country.
- Stamping out.
- Screening.
- Zoning.

Note from the OIE Central Bureau: Since this is the first occurrence of 
Newcastle disease in the State of Texas within the context of the current 
epizootic, the OIE Central Bureau has decided to publish the above 
emergency report despite our previous note (see Disease Information, 16 
[4], 24, dated 24 Jan 2003), to the effect that no further cases of 
Newcastle disease in the USA reported to the OIE within the context of this 
epizootic would be notified in Disease Information.

-- 
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[see also:
Newcastle disease, game fowl, plty - USA (west) (11)    20030415.0920
Newcastle disease, game fowl, plty - USA (west) (10)    20030411.0877
Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (TX) (02):confirmed 20030410.0870
Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (TX): suspected     20030407.0848
Newcastle disease, game fowl, plty. - USA (CA) (08)     20030211.0373
2002
---
Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (TX): warning       20021006.5482
1999
---
West Nile-like virus, birds - USA (02)                  19991007.1793
1998
---
Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (California) (04)   19980710.1302
1997
---
Cormorant and tern mortality - USA                      19970602.1141
1996
---
Cormorant mortality - USA (Texas)                       19961107.1874]

.............pc/pg/sh

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