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Archive Number 20021019.5603
Published Date 19-OCT-2002
Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (CA) (03)
NEWCASTLE DISEASE, GAME BIRDS -USA (CALIFORNIA) (03)
******************************************
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International Society for Infectious Diseases


[1]
Date: 18 Oct 2002
From: Thomas Walton <Thomas.E.Walton@usda.gov>
Subject: Emergency Management Warning 3: Newcastle Disease in California in 
Backyard Poultry


Newcastle disease (ND) has been confirmed in backyard poultry in Riverside 
and Los Angeles Counties, CA.
-------------------
Officials with the California Department of Agriculture (CDFA) and the 
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) are conducting an 
eradication campaign for Newcastle disease.  The disease was confirmed on 
October 1, 2002, and is restricted to backyard poultry.  Clinical signs in 
infected birds include respiratory, nervous, and gastrointestinal 
signs.  Mortality is up to 90% of exposed birds.  Commercial poultry, at 
this time are not involved in the disease occurrence.

State and federal animal health officials are conducting door-to-door 
surveys to identify fowl and other birds in the affected areas and are 
following up on all epidemiologic associations.  To date, depopulation, 
cleaning and disinfecting, and carcass disposal are being conducted by CDFA 
and APHIS.  CDFA has closed all poultry exhibits at fairs and expositions 
within the State of California.

The Newcastle disease situation is contained and is still considered a 
single outbreak cluster within a 30-mile radius in Los Angeles County and 
along the Los Angeles/Riverside County border.

Affected and exposed backyard poultry are being euthanized, double-bagged, 
disinfecting the bags, and transporting the carcasses to restricted 
landfills for burial.

All door-to-door surveillance, along with interviews, has established that 
there have been no links to eastern States within the United States and no 
exposure to other backyard poultry in other States.

Local commercial table egg layer birds are being closely monitored and will 
only be allowed to move intrastate under CDFA monitoring and spent-hen 
movements restricted to the day they are scheduled for processing.

The following are the numbers associated with the Newcastle disease 
situation in California:

Number of premises positive: 12
Number of contacts:  9
Number of premises quarantined: 50
Number of premises depopulated: 20
Premises waiting to be depopulated: 1
Birds depopulated to date:  5,711

If you have any additional questions, please contact the USDA, APHIS, 
Veterinary Services, Emergency Programs staff at 
301-734-8073,  800-940-6524, or EMOC@APHIS.USDA.GOV.

-----definitions---------

Emergency Management Issue is for information with no impact on APHIS 
Emergency Management Notice is an ongoing incident with potential impact on 
APHIS Emergency Management Warning is an ongoing incident with almost 
certain impact on APHIS

--
Thomas Walton
<Thomas.E.Walton@usda.gov>

******
[2]
Date: 18 Oct 2002
From: ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>
Source: OIE


NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
------------------------
Follow-up report No. 1

See also: 4 October 2002

Information received on 11 October 2002 from Dr Peter Fernandez, Associate 
Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States 
Department of Agriculture (USDA), Washington, DC:

End of previous report period: 3 October 2002 (see Disease Information, 15 
[40], 194, dated 4 October 2002).

End of this report period: 11 October 2002.

Outbreaks:
Location No. of outbreaks
Los Angeles and Riverside Counties, State of California 1*
* 13 known positive premises.

Description of affected population in the outbreak: detections continue to 
be made only in game fowl located in backyard premises. No commercial 
poultry are affected.

Total number of animals in the outbreak:
species: avi
susceptible cases **
deaths: approximately 400
destroyed: approximately 5,500
slaughtered

** Game fowl on backyard premises. Due to the nature of this type of 
activity involving this type of bird, an exact census is not available. The 
number of birds in these flocks ranges from one bird to several hundred birds.

Diagnosis:
A. Laboratory where diagnosis was made: National Veterinary Services
Laboratories, Ames, Iowa.
B. Diagnostic tests used: virus isolation.
C. Causal agent: paramyxovirus-1.

- The virus was found to have multiple basic amino acids at the fusion (F) 
protein cleavage activation site: arg. arg. glu. lys. arg* phe, a sequence 
compatible with that of mesogenic/velogenic pathotypes.

- The intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of the virus isolated from 
tissues of these backyard game fowl is 1.75.

Epidemiology:

A. Source of agent / origin of infection: Unknown. An evaluation of bird, 
people and fomite movement is ongoing.

B. Mode of spread: direct contact, fomites.
Control measures during reporting period:

- Depopulation of affected/exposed game fowl. To date, 11 of 13 backyard 
positive premises have been depopulated. The cleaning and disinfection of 
depopulated backyard premises is being conducted by State and Federal 
authorities.

- As a result of exposure or through possible epidemiological linkage with 
affected birds, additional backyard flocks are under quarantine.

- To prevent movement and assembly of this type of bird, the State of 
California has cancelled the following activities: swap meets (locations 
where game fowl are sold and exchanged), and exhibits at fairs and other shows.

- The commercial poultry industry has fortified its biosecurity measures.

- Epidemiological investigations are ongoing. Surveillance activities 
continue to be conducted door-to-door in the affected areas. Over 100 
backyard premises are being monitored.

--
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[see also:
Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (CA) (02)         20021012.5533
Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (TX): warning    20021006.5482
Newcastle disease, game birds - USA (CA): OIE         20021004.5468]
.................................tg/mpp

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